Monday, 31 October 2016

Ancient Spain, Al-Makkary, Batrikus

It is generally assumed that the movement of Africans into Europe, in significantly large numbers and into positions of real power, did not occur until the Muslim invasion of Spain in 711 AD.
Cartouche of Shoseng
According to Al-Makkary in history of the Mohammedan Dynasties in Spain, however, we learn of the great drought that afflicted Spain about 3000 years ago, a catastrophic event that was soon followed by an invasion from Africa.

This has nothing to do with the medieval Moors. To the left, actual cartouche as engraved on an alabaster trader vase found in tomb 16, Almunecar (courtesy Instituto Arqueologico Aleman de Madrid). Right, same cartouche as rendered in the British Museum style.

The drought that devastated Spain, however, is described by a number of Spanish historians. Pedro De Medina in libro de Las Grandezas de Espana, published in Seville in 1549 A.D., dates the drought at 1070 B. C. E. Al-Makkary also informs us of how Africans banished from North Africa by an African King against whom they revolted, enter Spain and took control of that country. The leader of the Africans was called Batrikus. We do not know his original name. However, his Romanic Latin name Batrikus survived. The Romans defeated the Africans 157 years later.
Turbaned Moor
The first African migration landed on the western shore of Spain called Cadiz. They spread about, extended their settlements, built cities, towns and increased their numbers by marriage.

They settled between the west of the country and country of the Franks in the east. They appointed kings to rule over them and administer their affairs. They called their capital city Talikah, (Italica) a city now in ruins, which once belonged to the district of Isbilah, which is the modern Seville.

Eleven African Kings reigned over Andalus within 57 years, however, they were annihilated by the Romans, who invaded and conquered the country.

The second major intrusion of an African army into Spain before the Moors occurred around 700 BCE, about the same time as the 25th dynasty in Egypt. The Egyptian pharaoh that was around that time was Taharka, his uncle was called Shabataka.

Taharka was the Egyptian pharaoh that invaded Spain, referred to in the early Spanish Chronicles as Tarraco. There are indisputable reference to the manuscript by Florian de Ocampo Cronica General published in Medina Del Campo in 1553. However, that most persuasive of all is the fact that cartouches of the Egyptian Kings of the period were found in Spain. Evidence of such cartouches may be found in the journal of the Epigraphic society (Vol 7, No. 171 - April 1979). The cartouche of shishonq was found in tomb 16, Almunecar, Spain.
Left Coat of Arms of Aragon

The fact that Africans from the north had been intruding into Southern Europe from early times shall not come as a great surprise. The strait that separates the two continents can be crossed by the simplest boats in a matter of hours.

Many historians, however, make clear cut distinctions between early North Africans and Africans of the Sahara. They contend that the early North Africans should not be confused with the sub Saharan Africa type.

Since many North Africans in modern times seem to fit into this theoretical construct it hard worked very well to confuse and confound the definition of their ethnicity.

However, the inhabitants of present day North Africa are considered ethnically and culturally distinct from people dwelling south of the Sahara. This is only so today because of the considerable influx of European types during the white slave trade era and their later movement into positions of dominance after the defeat of the Moors.
Coat of Arms of Corsica
The seven hundred years during which the moors dominated the Iberian Peninsula was an era in which many Europeans came into North Africa in the states of servitude.

The Muslims brought millions of European slaves over to the North African port of sales, Tangier, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli, Fez and Marrakesh, including Northern Egyptian towns.

One very famous Sultan, Mulai Ismael of Meknes, in Morocco, had as many as twenty five thousand European slaves who participated in the building of colossal stables. Left Coat of Arms of Sardinia.

Sunday, 30 October 2016

Haiti, Toussaint Louverture, Immortal, Light

Nonetheless, he sent it to France for approval by Napoleon Bonaparte. In response, Napoleon deployed twenty-two thousand troops and eighty-six warships in order to subdue Toussaint Louverture and restore slavery in the colony and in all the other French dependencies of America. The troops also had a mission to expand the French colonial empire in America, going from Saint-Domingue up to the former French possessions along the Mississippi.

"Their first move toward overthrowing the White slave owners was a highly effective campaign of Poisoning. It began in the mid-18th Century. So well organised was the” Poisoned Network," that barrels of Ale straight off ships from Europe were already rendered deadly.

As the tide turned in favour of the rebels, the Revolution proper was launched in 1791 with a Voodoo ritual involving the sacrifice of a "black Pig."

According To Multimedia Grolier Encyclopaedia:
"Inspired By The French Revolution (1789) The Slaves In The Colony, Under The Leadership Of Francois Toussant L'ouverture, Rebelled (1791) And Gained Control Of The Colony But Did Not Declare Independence.

In 1802, Napoleon I Sent A French Army Under General Charles Leclerc To Subdue The Haitians. Leclerc Captured Toussaint, But The Haitian Force Under Jean Jacques Dessalines And Henri Christopher Defeated The French. The Whole Island Was Declared Independent On Jan. l, 1804 And Given The Name Of Haiti."
Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture (1743-1803 AD)
Toussaint L'Ouverture is heralded for his shrewd abilities to mobilise and command thousands in an unseen army.

He demanded discipline, loyalty, and allegiance to the cause of liberty. John Hope Franklin states in From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans, "Haiti was the first of the New World countries to sweep slavery aside."

Without the military genius of L'Ouverture, Haiti would never have defeated the French for her freedom. Toussaint L'Ouverture spent most of his life as a model captive working as a carriage driver on the Breda plantation in Haiti. Left the true Image of Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture

He was married to Suzanne and they had two sons. L'Ouverture was a devout Roman Catholic, self-educated and literate in French. He had extensive knowledge of the usage of medicinal herbs and used this skill in 1791, when the revolution began, as a physician for the rebel troops. He quickly rose through the ranks and became responsible for training the men.

He turned them into a well- disciplined military force with the ability to use maneuvers conducive for guerilla warfare or regular land-force fighting. For ten years he outmanoeuvred the Spanish, the English, the French, and a small rebellious force of mulattoes.
Toussaint L'Ouverture

He used his influence and charisma to restore the country to peaceful growth. Bridges were built, schools were encouraged with awards for the best scholars. L'Ouverture also encouraged the minority White population to contribute their talent toward the development of Haiti. L'Ouverture was too successful and Napoleon knew that he needed the island to forward his plans for the Louisiana Territory.

Napoleon sent his brother-in-law, Le Clere, with an additional 25,000 soldiers to recapture the tiny island. Betrayed by one of his aides, L'Ouverture was captured and taken to France. He was accused of conspiracy, imprisoned, and died the next year in a cold prison cell, far from his native island. After his capture by the French, a major revolt occurred. The French forces were defeated by the heat, malaria, yellow fever, and tenacious cunning of the officers and captives trained by L'Ouverture.

Lerone Bennet, Jr. states in Before the Mayflower, "The French lost some 60,000 men and a rich colony and Napoleon soured on the Western Hemisphere and sold the Louisiana Territory to America for four cents an acre - the biggest real estate bargain in history," in 1803. Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture is revered and praised today as one of the courageous founders of Haiti.
Napoleon Bonaparte

The philosophy and culture of the Haitian people strongly mirrored many other cultures pertaining to the historicity of People of Colours. If Francois Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture was of Caucasian origin, there would have been a few series of Hollywood movies dedicated  to him already. Instead we are left with 'Roots', from those Negroes, who does not know their own history or chose to ignore it. Haitians were severely punished for their heroism by USA, France, Spain and England, via vicious trade sanctions that went on for centuries.

The Lord is enshrined in the hearts of all. The Lord is the supreme reality. Rejoice in him through renunciation. Covet nothing. All belongs to the Lord. Thus working may you live a hundred years. Thus alone can you work in full freedom. Those who deny the Self are born again Blind to the Self, enveloped in darkness, Utterly devoid of love for the Lord.

The Self is one. Ever still, the Self is Swifter than thought, swifter than the senses. Though motionless, he outruns all pursuit. Without the Self, never could life exist. The Self seems to move, but is ever still. He seems far away, but is ever near. He is within all, and he transcends all. Those who see all races in themselves And themselves in all races know no fear. Those who see all races in themselves And themselves in all races know no grief. How can the multiplicity of life Delude the one who sees its unity? The Self is everywhere. Bright is the Self, Indivisible, untouched by sin, wise, Immanent and transcendent. He it is Who holds the cosmos together.

In dark night live those For whom the world without alone is real; In night darker still, for whom the world within Alone is real. The first leads to a life Of action, the second of meditation. But those who combine action with meditation Go across the sea of death through action And enter into immortality Through the practice of meditation. So have we heard from the wise. In dark night live those for whom the Lord Is transcendent only; in night darker still, For whom he is immanent only.

But those for whom he is transcendent And immanent cross the sea of death With the immanent and enter into Immortality with the transcendent. So have we heard from the wise. The face of truth is hidden by your orb Of gold, O sun. May you remove the orb So that I, who adore the true, may see The glory of truth. O nourishing sun, Solitary traveller, controller, Source of life for all creatures, spread your light, And subdue your dazzling splendour So that I may see your blessed Self. Even that very Self am I! May my life merge in the Immortal. When my body is reduced to ashes!

Saturday, 29 October 2016

Nanny Maroon, Haiti, Toussaint Louverture

The two main Maroon groups in the 18th century were the Leeward and the Windward tribes, the former led by Cudjoe in Trelawny Town and the latter led by his sister Queen Nanny (and later by Quao)] Queen Nanny, also known as Granny Nanny (died 1733) is the only female listed among Jamaica's National Heroes, and has been immortalised in songs and legends.

She was known for her exceptional leadership skills, especially in guerrilla warfare, which were particularly important in the First Maroon War in the early 18th century. Her remains are reputedly buried at "Bump Grave" in Moore Town, the main town of the Windward Maroons who are concentrated in and around the Rio Grande valley in the north-eastern parish of Portland. The Maroons retreated to the mountains throughout the mid-seventeenth century, unaware of the impact they would make on British and Jamaican history.

With a vast knowledge of the uninhabited Jamaican mountain side, the Maroons were able to wage war against British planters and eventually contract a peace agreement with the British. Through the courage of fugitive slaves and the leadership of Cudjoe and his colleagues, the Maroons became a people whose history exemplified the driving force of freedom.

In 1789, Saint-Domingue was plagued by a number of contradictions. The great white planters demanded political autonomy. The Affranchis, most of whom were landowners, clamoured for civil and political equality with the whites.

The slaves looked for freedom. Brought from Africa, they toiled on plantations and in production workshops and were at the mercy of the overseer's whip. On the night of 21–22 August 1791, following a political movement in the North Province under the leadership of a certain Boukman, slaves set fire to the plantations and attacked their masters. The insurrection spread to the West and South Provinces.

The fight waged by the slaves became more structured with the emergence of Toussaint Louverture. As the commander of an army that he personally organised, he became a powerful figure in the colony. From 1794 to 1802, Toussaint Louverture led the combat. In order to keep Saint-Domingue within its colonial empire, the French authorities came to terms with Toussaint Louverture, promoting him to the rank of general in chief of the Saint-Domingue army and, later, governor.

In such a position of power, he made freedom of blacks the focus of his international policy and made the revival of production the focus of his domestic policy.

Toussaint Louverture forged an autonomous policy vis-à-vis France. In 1801, without the backing of French authorities, he entered the eastern side of the island, then under Spanish domination, and abolished slavery there. In the same year he promulgated a constitution for the entire island with immediate application. Right: Toussaint Louverture White-washed Version.

Nonetheless, he sent it to France for approval by Napoleon Bonaparte. In response, Napoleon deployed twenty-two thousand troops and eighty-six warships in order to subdue Toussaint Louverture and restore slavery in the colony and in all the other French dependencies of America. The troops also had a mission to expand the French colonial empire in America, going from Saint-Domingue up to the former French possessions along the Mississippi.

Friday, 28 October 2016

Caribbean, Nanny Maroon

When the British captured Jamaica in 1655 the Spanish colonists fled leaving a large number of African slaves. Rather than be re-enslaved by the British, they escaped into the hilly, mountainous regions of the island, joining those who had previously escaped from the Spanish to live with the Taínos.

The Maroons intermarried with Amerindian natives, establishing independence in the back country and survived by subsistence farming and by raiding plantations. Over time, the Maroons came to control large areas of the Jamaican interior. Their plantation raids resulted in the First Maroon War.

The Spaniards in Jamaica kept up communication with their former neighbours who were now living on the south side of Cuba. Less than 24 hours away on sail, the Spaniards in Cuba would eventually be called upon to help those in Jamaica try to regain control of the island. In 1655, Don Arnoldo de Sasi, the old governor, five hundred of the former inhabitants, and one thousand troops from Old Spain, landed at Rio Nuevo east of Seville where they built a fort.

But, the surprise attack was quickly suppressed when Colonel Doyley, the English governor, arrived with five hundred men from the south side of Jamaica and forced the Spanish to run back to their safe haven in Cuba. With the departure of their Spanish masters, about 1500 slaves decided to seek refuge on the north and east sides of the mountains rather than to submit to the conquerors or follow the fortunes of their former owners.

As Dallas’ History of the Maroons Vol. 1 mentions, it is believed that "for some time they were instigated by their former masters to commit hostilities against the new possessors of the country." Although this idea seemed unlikely, the possibilities of communicating with their former slaves could have been accomplished since Cuba was so to Jamaica, and because the Spaniards were very familiar in navigating the Leeward Islands.

Located in different parts of the island, most of the Spanish slaves from the south side of Jamaica sought refuge in the mountains of Clarendon where they were led by a chief named Juan de Bolas. Under his leadership, many of these Clarendon Spanish slaves attacked the British inhabitants of Jamaica, as well as the other fugitive slaves of the island. However, once they were defeated and their leader slain, the Clarendon slaves began diminishing in number, never to return to their safe haven in the mountains.

However, another group of fugitives would soon arise. In 1690 a group of slaves from the Clarendon parish rebelled against their masters and sought refuge in the interior parts of the country.

Through the recruitment of other plantation slaves, this new group of Clarendon fugitives increased in number and acquired the necessary provisions from the plantations of their newest recruits. In time, these rebels, not yet associated with the Maroons living in the east, would plunder plantations, destroy cattle, and carry off slaves by force in order to survive, simultaneously causing planters to constantly live in a state of fear.

As a result, the planters made many complaints to the British legislation and parties of armed forces were soon organised to kill the Clarendon rebels. The Clarendon rebels, who always travelled in small gangs without a particular leader, decided to organise themselves and appoint a chief who would protect them from the wrath of the Jamaican colonists. They picked Cudjoe, "a bold, skillful, and enterprising man," he in turn appointed his brothers Accompong and Johnny to lead under him, and Cuffee and Quao as Captains.

With new leadership and an increase in size, due to the Coromantee slaves who had joined them, the Clarendon rebels were gaining strength in numbers and through their leadership. Moreover, Cudjoe's war against the white inhabitants of Jamaica had brought him great fame amongst the white planters and the fugitive slaves alike. As a result, a group known as the Cottawoods, who had separated from the other Maroons prior to 1730, marched through the mountainous, uninhabited areas of the country to join Cudjoe and the Clarendon rebels.

The two main Maroon groups in the 18th century were the Leeward and the Windward tribes, the former led by Cudjoe in Trelawny Town and the latter led by his sister Queen Nanny (and later by Quao)] Queen Nanny, also known as Granny Nanny (died 1733) is the only female listed among Jamaica's National Heroes, and has been immortalised in songs and legends.

Thursday, 27 October 2016

Knights Templar, Fabian Society, Priory of Sion

The Knights Templar (full name:
Knights Templar Symbol
 The United Religious, Military and Masonic Orders of the Temple and of St John of Jerusalem, Palestine, Rhodes and Malta) is a modern off-shoot of Masonry and does not have a direct tie to the original Knights Templar - a religious military group formed in the 12th century.

Members of the Masonic Knights Templar do not claim a direct connection to the medieval group, but merely a borrowing of ideas and symbols. In order to become a member of this group, you must already be a Christian Master Mason. This organisation is a distinct one, and is not just a higher degree of Masonry.

Despite Freemasonry’s general disclaimer that no one Masonic organisation claims a direct heritage to the medieval Knights Templar, certain degrees and orders are obviously patterned after the medieval Order.

These are best described as "commemorative orders" or degrees. Nevertheless, in spite of the fraternity’s official disclaimers, some Masons, non-Masons, and even anti-Masons insist that certain Masonic rites or degrees originally had direct Templar influence.

Fabian Society Symbol
The Fabian Society, founded in 1884 in Great Britain to promote Socialism. The Fabian Society takes its name from the Roman General Fabius Maximus, who fought Hannibal's army in small debilitating skirmishes, rather than attempting one decisive battle.

After the publication of the Da Vinci Code by Dan Brown, a great deal of interest in the Priory of Sion has been created. Unfortunately for those hoping to find and join the Priory, it is, in fact, fictional. It was a hoax created in 1956 by a pretender to the French Throne, Pierre Plantard.

Letters in existence dating from the 1960s written by Plantard, de Cherisey and de Sède to each other confirm that the three were engaging in an out-and-out confidence trick, describing schemes on how to combat criticisms of their various allegations and how they would make up new allegations to try to keep the whole thing going. Despite this, many people still continue to believe that the Priory exists and functions to this day.

The authors of the well known book, The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail, misled by the hoax, stated: The Priory of Sion has a long history starting in AD 1099, and had illustrious Grand Masters including Isaac Newton and Leonardo da Vinci.

The order protects certain royal claimants because they believe them to be the literal descendants of Jesus and his alleged wife Mary Magdalene or, at the very least, of king David. The priory seeks the founding of a “Holy European Empire” that would become the next hyper-power and usher in a new world order of peace and prosperity.

Wednesday, 26 October 2016

Opus Dei, Ordo Templis Orientis, OTO, Bilderberg Group

Opus Dei is an organization of the Catholic Church that emphasizes the Catholic belief that everyone is called to holiness and that ordinary life is a path to sanctity.
Opus Dei

The celibate numeraries and numerary assistants live in special centers, while associates are celibate members living in their private homes. The order was founded in Spain in 1928 by Roman Catholic priest Josemar Escriva with the approval of Pope Pius XII. When Dan Brown’s Da Vinci Code was published, it claimed that Opus Dei was a secret organisation within the Church whose aim was to defeat the Priory of Sion and those who seek to uncover the “truth” about Christianity and the alleged royal bloodline of Christ.

Outside of the book, there has been a great deal of controversy over Opus Dei because of the strictness of its religious structure. The Catholic Church forbids secret societies and membership in them, and Opus Dei investigators have frequently debunked claims that this organisation is acting in secrecy to further a sinister agenda.

Ordo Templis Orientis: The OTO (Order of the Temples of the East) is an organisation that was originally modelled on Masonry but, under the leadership of the self-styled “Great Beast” Aleister Crowley, it took on the principles of his religious system called Thelema. Thelema is based around a single law: “Do what thou wilt shall be the whole of the law, love is the law, love under the will” [1904].

Membership is based upon degrees of initiation and highly stylized rituals are used. The OTO currently claims over 3,000 members worldwide. Crowley created a “Mass” for the OTO which is called the Gnostic Mass. Of the "Mass", Crowley wrote: "I resolved that my Ritual should celebrate the sublimity of the operation of universal forces without introducing disputable metaphysical theories.
Ordo Templis Orientis
I would neither make nor imply any statement about nature which would not be endorsed by the most materialistic man of science. On the surface this may sound difficult; but in practice I found it perfectly simple to combine the most rigidly rational conceptions of phenomena with the most exalted and enthusiastic celebration of their sublimity." The ritual is very stylised and uses virgin priestesses, children, and priests. Many Ancient Egyptian God’s are invoked, as well as the Devil, and at one point the priestess performs a naked ritual.

The Bilderberg Group: This group is slightly different from the others in that it does not have an official membership. It is the name given to a group of highly influential people who meet ever year in secrecy (and usually with strong military and government sponsored security). The topics discussed are kept secret. The structure of the meetings is that of a conference - usually held in five star hotels around the world. Attendance at the meeting is strictly by invitation only. The first meeting took place in 1954 at the Hotel Bilderberg in the Netherlands.

The original meeting was initiated by several people. Polish migrant and political adviser, Joseph Retinger, concerned about the growth of anti-Americanism in Western Europe, proposed an international conference at which leaders from European countries and the United States would be brought together with the aim of promoting understanding between the cultures of The United States of America and Western Europe. Although the agenda and list of participants are openly available to the public, it is not clear that such details are disclosed by the group itself.

Also, the contents of the meetings are kept secret and attendees pledge not to divulge what was discussed. The group’s stated justification for secrecy is that it enables people to speak freely without the need to carefully consider how every word might be interpreted by the mass media. Needless to say, this group is constantly surrounded by controversy and conspiracy theories.

Tuesday, 25 October 2016

The Order of the Golden Dawn, Vril

The order of the Golden Dawn was created by Dr. William Robert Woodman, William Wynn Westcott, and Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers. All three were Freemasons and members of Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia (an organization with ties to Masonry). It is considered by many to be a forerunner of the Ordo Templi Orientis and a majority of modern Occult groups. The belief system of the Golden Dawn is largely taken from Christian mysticism, Qabalah, Hermeticism, the religion of Ancient Egypt, Freemasonry, Alchemy, Theosophy, Magic, and Renaissance writings.
Golden Dawn Symbol

William Yeats, and Aleister Crowly are two of the more famous members of the group. The fundamental documents of the order are known as the Cipher Documents. These were translated into English using a cipher attributed to Johannes Trithemius. The documents are a series of 60 folios containing magic rituals. The basic structure of many of these rituals appear to originate with Rosicrucianism. There is a great deal of controversy surrounding the origins of these documents.

Masons use signs and handshakes to gain admission to their meetings, as well as to identify themselves to other people who may be Masons. The signs and handshakes often differ from one jurisdiction to another and are often changed or updated. This protects the group from people finding out how to gain admission under false pretenses. Masons also wear stylized clothing based upon the clothing worn by stone masons from the middle ages. The most well known of these is the apron.

The Vril Society or The Luminous Lodge combined the political ideals of the Order of the Illuminati with Hindu mysticism, Theosophy and the Cabbala. It was the first German nationalist groups to use the symbol of the swastika as an emblem linking Eastern and Western occultism. The Vril Society presented the idea of a subterranean matriarchal, socialist utopia ruled by superior beings who had mastered the mysterious energy called the Vril Force. This secret society was founded, literally, on Bulwer Lytton's novel The Coming Race (1871).

The book describes a race of men psychically far in advance of our own. They have acquired powers over themselves and over things that made them almost godlike. For the moment they are in hiding. They are said to live in caves in the center of the Earth. Soon they will emerge to reign over us."The Vril Society believed that whoever becomes master of the Vril will be the master of himself, of others around him and of the world. The belief was that the world will change and the "Lords" will emerge from the center of the Earth. Unless we have made an alliance with them and become "Lords" ourselves, we shall find ourselves among the slaves, on the dung-heap that will nourish the roots of the New Cities that will arise.
Vril Symbol

The Vril Force or Vril Energy was said to be derived from the Black Sun, a big ball of "Prima Materia" which supposedly exists in the center of the Earth, giving light to the Vril-ya and putting out radiation in the form of Vril. The Vril Society believed that Aryans were the actual biological ancestors of the Black Sun. This force was known to the ancients under many names, and it has been called Chi, Ojas,

Vril, Astral Light, Odic Forces and Orgone. In a discussion of the 28th degree of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry called Knight of the Sun or Prince Adept— Albert Pike said, "There is in nature one most potent force, by means whereof a single man, who could possess himself of it, and should know how to direct it, could revolutionise and change the face of the world."

This is the force that the Nazis and their inner occult circle were so desperately trying to unleash upon the world, for which the Vril Society had apparently groomed Hitler. A manifestation of the "Great Work" promulgated by the Adepts of secret societies throughout the ages. The Vril Society latched on to a very old archetype already in the minds of alchemists and magicians, which was only re-interpreted, by Lytton, in light of that age of occult revival and scientific progress.

Monday, 24 October 2016

Freemason, Masons, Lodge, Rosicrucian, Skull and Bones

The Grand Masonic Lodge was created in 1717 when four small groups of lodges joined together. Membership levels were initially first and second degree, but in the 1750s this was expanded to create the third degree which caused a split in the group.
Compass and Square
 When a person reaches the third degree, they are called a Master Mason. Masons conduct their regular meetings in a ritualised style. This includes many references to architectural symbols such as the compass and square. They refer to God as "The Great Architect of the Universe." The three degrees of Masonry are:

1: Entered Apprentice, this makes you a basic member of the group.
2: Fellow Craft, this is an intermediate degree in which you are meant to develop further knowledge of Masonry.
3: Master Mason, this degree is necessary for participating in most masonic activities. Some rites (such as the Scottish rite, York rite or Bohemian rite) list up to 33 degrees of membership. It can go as far as 120 degree and more, for those gifted and special people among the initiates. In an ideal world 90 degree could only be achieved purely via merit. However, money, lots-f-money has corrupted and infected modern day freemasonry.

Masons use signs and handshakes to gain admission to their meetings, as well as to identify themselves to other people who may be Masons. The signs and handshakes often differ from one jurisdiction to another and are often changed or updated. This protects the group from people finding out how to gain admission under false pretences. Masons also wear stylised clothing based upon the clothing worn by stone masons from the middle ages. The most well known of these is the apron.
Rosicrucian Cross

The Rosicrucian order is generally believed to have been the idea of a group of German protestants in the 1600s when a series of three documents were published: Fama Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis, Confessio Fraternitatis, and The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz anno 1459. The documents were so widely read and influential, that the historian Frances Yeats refers to the 17th century as the Rosicrucian Enlightenment.

The first document tells the story of a mysterious alchemist (Christian Rosenkreuz) who travelled to various parts of the world gathering secret knowledge. The second document tells of a secret brotherhood of alchemists who were preparing to change the political and intellectual face of Europe. The third document describes the invitation of Christian Rosenkreuz to attend and assist at the “Chemical” wedding of a King and Queen in a castle of Miracles. Current members of the Rosicrucian Order claim that its origins are far more ancient than these documents.

The authors of the documents seemed to strongly favour Lutheranism and include condemnations of the Catholic Church. Rosicrucianism probably had an influence on Masonry and, in fact, the 18th degree of Scottish Rite Masonry is called the Knight of the Rose Croix (red cross). There are a large number of Rosicrucian groups today - each claiming to be closely tied to the original. Of the two main divisions, one is a mix of Christianity with Rosicrucian principles, and the other is semi-Masonic. The Masonic type tend to also have degrees of membership.
Skull and Bones

The Order of Skull and Bones, a Yale University society, was originally known as the Brotherhood of Death. It is one of the oldest student secret societies in the United States. It was founded in 1832 and membership is open to an elite few. The society uses masonic inspired rituals to this day. Members meet every Thursday and Sunday of each week in a building they call the "Tomb". According to Judy Schiff, Chief Archivist at the Yale University Library, the names of the members were not kept secret until the 1970s, but the rituals always have been.

Both of the Bush presidents were members of the society while studying at Yale, and a number of other members have gone on to great fame and fortune. The society is surrounded by conspiracy theories; the most popular of which is probably the idea that the CIA was built on members from the group. The CIA released a statement in 2007 (coinciding with the popularity of the film The Good Shepherd) in which it denied that the group was an incubator for the CIA.

Saturday, 22 October 2016

Eastern Star Female Freemason

The Order of the Eastern Star has a tangled history. Originally conceived as an American form of Adoptive Masonry as early as the 1840s, it took until 1876 for the General Grand Chapter, Order of the Eastern Star, to be formed. There are at least two separate organisations that both say that they are dedicated to the unification of all Eastern Stars, but which lead a separate existence from the General Grand Chapter and were founded in 1947 and 1962 respectively.

There is also an African-American organisation, dating from the days when American Masons officially barred blacks from membership. The General Grand Chapter of the Order of the Eastern Star was founded in 1876.

It currently extends worldwide, in association (where appropriate) with the Supreme Grand Chapter of Scotland. It is open to Master Masons in good standing and their female relatives over the age of 18 years. There were 2,087,063 members in 1994.

The Eastern Stars of Freemasonry also goes back to Egypt and the worship of the female deity Aset (Isis). The female is The Eastern Star because Isis, the wife of Osiris had to travel eastward to find Osiris's body after his brother, Set, had Killed him. Osiris had to be resurrected for revenge through his son, Horus, who was also called "The Horizon."

Osiris wanted revenge on his brother Set. That's what the Sun (Son) must do. The requirements for the women who wants to be an Eastern Star are, Initiates must be women over eighteen and related to Freemasons. They must profess belief in a supreme being. There are two chief officers of a subordinate chapter, a worthy Matron and the worthy Patron, a master Mason.

The chaplain of the Chapter would lead them in its devotions of the altar, and ask blessings of the heavenly father to be upon their work. An open bible rests in the centre of the altar of the chapter room. The Five-Degrees Ritual is based upon stories of five women, four of which are in the bible, Adah, the Daughter (Genesis 4:19), Ruth, the Widow (Ruth 1:9), Esther, the Wife (Esther 2:7), Martha, the Sister (John 11:5) and Electra, the Mother.

The ritual also illustrates powerful patriarchal values, and, of course, the degrees must be conferred by a (male) Master Mason. The degrees are:

Obedience, symbolised by Adah daughter of Jepthah (daughter)
Devotion to religious values, symbolised by Ruth (widow)
Fidelity, exemplified by Esther (wife)
Faith in the Redeemer, symbolised by Martha sister of Lazarus (sister)
Charity, symbolised by Electra, identified as the “Elect Lady” in the second epistle of St. John (mother)

It is important to Stress that not all Masons worship Lucifer, only the top 5% do. A majority of this page on Freemasonry was taken from Masonic books that were published by Masonic Publishing Companies. Most of these writings were kept secret. Biblical admonition has been taken carefully, comparing Masonic teachings to the Holy Bible. In I John 4:1, we read: "Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try (test) the spirits whether they are of God: because many false prophets are gone out into the world."

We see that any religious teaching that does not conform to Scripture is from a "false prophet.”Many people still do not understand the importance of studying this subject to its logical conclusion. Their spiritual freedom is at stake. Remember two things about Masonry: 1) Superior Masons deliberately lie to their fellow Masons, as those Masons "deserve to be misled;" 2) Explanations given to 95% of all Masons are wrong.

This quote from Masonic author, Carl Claudy sums it all up: "Cut through the outer shell and find a meaning; cut through that meaning and find another; under it, if you dig deep enough, you may find a third, a fourth -- who shall say how many teachings?" Many who are in Masonry are not aware that they are lied to. Finally, remember Albert Pike's bold assertion in Morals & Dogma, that "Masonry is identical to the ancient Mysteries," which means that all their teachings in all their books are precisely the same as the Ancient, so called Pagan, Satanic Mysteries. (p. 624, teachings of the 28th Degree). For men it could be as high as 90 Degree and even up to 120 Degree plus more.

Friday, 21 October 2016

Yamasee, Indians, Muskhogean

The Yamasee Indians were part of the Muskhogean language group. Their traditional homelands lay in present-day northern Florida and southern Georgia. The advent of the Spanish in the late 16th century forced the Yamasee to migrate north into what would become South Carolina. Relations between the tribe and English settlers in that region were generally positive during the latter half of the 17th century.

Not surprisingly, problems between the races developed. The continuing influx of white settlers put pressure on Indian agricultural and hunting lands. The relationship was further complicated in that the tribe had become dependent on English firearms and other manufactured items, and had incurred a large debt, typically payable in deerskins. White fur traders acted on their displeasure by enslaving a number of Yamasee women and children to cover portions of the outstanding debt.
Casta Painting

In the spring of 1715, the Yamasee formed a confederation with other tribes and struck at the white settlements in South Carolina. Several hundred settlers were killed, homes burned and livestock slaughtered. The frontier regions were emptied; some fled to the relative safety of North Carolina and others pushed on to even more secure Virginia. Charleston also received large numbers of frightened settlers. At the height of the fighting, it appeared that the tribal confederation's overwhelming numerical superiority would end in the white settlements' complete destruction in the region.

This would have been a virtual certainty if the confederacy had successfully drawn the Cherokee into their cause. Instead, the Cherokee gave in to the lure of English weapons and other goods, and chose to aid the Carolinians. In a further stroke of good fortune, the besieged settlers also managed to gain support from Virginia ~ez_mdash~ an event not assured in this age of intense colonial rivalries. The tide turned against the Yamasee, who were slowly pushed south through Georgia back into their ancestral lands in northern Florida. There, the tribe was virtually annihilated by protracted warfare with the Creeks, but some members were absorbed by the Seminole.

The Yamasee War took a heavy toll in South Carolina. Such terror had been instilled in the minds of the frontiersmen that it would take nearly 10 years for resettlement to occur in many areas. The warfare also brought a sharp change to the region's economy. Originally, farming had been the settlers' primary occupation, but the livestock supply had been so drastically depleted that many farms disappeared. In their absence, enterprising South Carolinians turned to the forests as a source of naval stores (tar, pitch and turpentine) and soon developed a lucrative trade with England. Later, the economy would develop rice and indigo as its primary products.
Casta Painting
The Tsoyaha (Yuchi) are not well represented in the history books. This is for several reasons. First, while the Yuchi were a large and powerful tribe according to reports of the De Soto expedition, evidence indicates that disease epidemics ravaged the Yuchi after the Spanish men visited the East Tennessee area. The Yuchi were known to have widely scattered villages that ranged from Florida to Illinois, and from the Carolina coast to the Mississippi River. Legend has it that the tribe split in half over politics, and the fate of remaining half is not known.

This actually seems to have happened several times over the past as portions of the tribe were absorbed into the Shawnee, Lenape, Cherokee and Creek peoples, as well as into the dominant culture. We do know that for at least 6 or 8 centuries much of what is now Tennessee was occupied by a tribe with cultural characteristics that like the Mouse Creek site had significant elements of the Yuchean cultural footprint.
Casta Painting
The Yuchi villages were very often intermingled with those of the neighbouring tribes. It was widely theorized that the Yuchi in their widely scattered villages throughout the Southeastern United States, represented the original inhabitants prior to the influx of the Muskhogean, Iroquoian, and Algonkian Peoples. The Yuchi themselves avow that only the Algonkian (Lenape) were already here when they came -- and call them the "Old Ones" still.

It is certain that the Yuchi were among the Mound-building People, and therefore among the oldest recognizable permanent residents of the Southeast United States. They held a pivotal role in this rather sophisticated society as priests, leaders and traders in what was a very metropolitan culture. After suffering many fatalities due to epidemic disease and warfare in the 18th century, several surviving Yuchi were removed to Indian Territory in the 1830s, together with their allies the Muscogee Creek.

(Some who remained in the South were classified as "free persons of color"; others were enslaved.) Some remnant groups migrated to Florida, where they became part of the recently formed Seminole Tribe of Florida. Today the Yuchi live primarily in the northeastern Oklahoma area, where many are enrolled as citizens in the federally recognized Muscogee Creek Nation. Some Yuchi are enrolled as members of other federally recognized tribes, such as the Absentee Shawnee Tribe and the Cherokee Nation.

Thursday, 20 October 2016

Cherokee, Freedmen, Ohlone, Indians

The Cherokee Freedmen Controversy is an ongoing political and tribal dispute between the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and descendants of the Cherokee Freedmen regarding tribal citizenship. During the American Civil War, the Cherokee who supported the Union abolished the practice of African slavery by act of the Cherokee National Council in 1863.

The Cherokee Freedmen became citizens of the Cherokee Nation in accordance with a treaty made with the United States government a year after the Civil War ended. In the early 1980s, the Cherokee Nation administration amended citizenship rules to require direct descent from an ancestor listed as "Cherokee by Blood" on the Dawes Rolls.

The change stripped descendants of the Cherokee Freedmen of citizenship and voting rights unless they satisfied this new criterion. About 25,000 Freedmen were excluded from the tribe. Cherokee freedmen On March 7, 2006, the Cherokee Supreme Court ruled that the descendants of the Cherokee Freedmen were unconstitutionally kept from enrolling as citizens and were allowed to enrol in the Cherokee Nation. Chad "Corntassel" Smith, then-Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, called for an emergency election to amend the constitution in response to the ruling. After a petition was circulated, a special election held on March 3, 2007 resulted in a constitutional amendment that dis-enrolled the Cherokee Freedmen descendants.
Caster Painting

This led to several legal proceedings in United States and Cherokee Nation courts in which the Freedmen descendants continued to press for their treaty rights and recognition as Cherokee Nation members.

The 2007 constitutional amendment was voided in Cherokee Nation district court on January 14, 2011, but was overturned by a 4-1 ruling in Cherokee Nation Supreme Court on August 22, 2011, before the special run-off election for Principal Chief. The ruling excluded the Cherokee Freedmen descendants from voting in the special election.

After the freezing of 33 million dollars in funds by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and a letter from the Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in response to the ruling, an agreement in federal court between the Cherokee Nation, the Freedmen descendants and the US government allowed the Freedmen to vote in the special election. Bill John Baker was elected Principal Chief in the special election and inaugurated in October 2011. The Cherokee Supreme Court dismissed an appeal of the election results by former chief Chad Smith. Both sides filed complaints in federal court in Tulsa, Oklahoma, by July 2012; the Cherokee say the 1866 treaty does not require them to give full citizenship to the Freedmen, who continue to seek full rights. The first hearing on the merits of the case was held in May, 2014 in the U.S. A.

Ohlone people, also known as the Costanoan, are a Native American people of the central and northern California coast. When Spanish explorers and missionaries arrived in the late 18th century, the Ohlone inhabited the area along the coast from San Francisco Bay through Monterey Bay to the lower Salinas Valley.
Caster Painting
At that time they spoke a variety of languages, the Ohlone languages, belonging to the Costanoan sub-family of the Utian language family, which itself belongs to the proposed Penutian language phylum.

The term "Ohlone" has been used in place of "Costanoan" since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers, historians, and writers of popular literature.

In pre-colonial times, the Ohlone lived in more than 50 distinct landholding groups, and did not view themselves as a distinct group. They lived by hunting, fishing, and gathering, in the typical ethnographic California pattern. The members of these various bands interacted freely with one another as they built friendships and marriages, traded tools and other necessities, and partook in cultural practices. The Ohlone people practised the Kuksu religion.

 Before the Spanish came, the northern California region was one of the most densely populated regions north of Mexico. However in the years 1769 to 1833, the Spanish missions in California had a devastating effect on Ohlone culture. The Ohlone population declined steeply during this period. The Ohlone living today belong to one or another of a number of geographically distinct groups, most, but not all, in their original home territory.

The Muwekma Ohlone Tribe has members from around the San Francisco Bay Area, and is composed of descendants of the Ohlones/Costanoans from the San Jose, Santa Clara, and San Francisco missions.

The Ohlone/Costanoan Esselen Nation, consisting of descendants of intermarried Rumsen Costanoan and Esselen speakers of Mission San Carlos Borromeo, are centred at Monterey. The Amah-Mutsun Tribe are descendants of Mutsun Costanoan speakers of Mission San Juan Bautista, inland from Monterey Bay.

Most members of another group of Rumsien language, descendants from Mission San Carlos, the Costanoan Rumsien Carmel Tribe of Pomona/Chino, now live in southern California. These groups, and others with smaller memberships (see groups listed under the heading Present Day below) are separately petitioning the federal government for tribal recognition.

Wednesday, 19 October 2016

Spainish, Blood, Quantum, laws

Casta Paintings
During the Spanish colonial period, Spaniards developed a complex caste system based on race, which was used for social control and which also determined a person's importance in society. There were four main categories of race: (1) Peninsular, a Spaniard born in Spain; (2) Criollo (feminine, criolla), a person of Spanish descent born in the New World; (3) Indio (fem. India), a person who is descendent of the original inhabitants of the Americas; and (4) Negro (fem. negra) - a person of black African descent, usually a slave or their free descendants. Ilona Katzew (New York University)

Since the sixteenth century, Spaniards had transposed their own social schema onto their colonies in the New World. The subordination of State to Church and the ideology of limpieza de sangre (purity of blood)--where the absence of Jewish or Muslim blood defined an honourable Old Christian--were factors contributing to Spain's hierarchically organised society, whose members had clearly delineated social roles.
Casta Painting

When the Spanish colonised the New World, they brought with them this division of society into nobles and plebeians. By converting the Indians to the Christian faith, an imperative that gave justification to the colonial enterprise, Spaniards became the aristocracy of Mexico regardless of their origins or occupations.

The supremacy of Spaniards (or whites) was remarked at the end of the colonial period by Alexander von Humboldt (1769 - 1859), a German natural scientist who travelled in the New World: "any white person, although he rides his horse barefoot, imagines himself to be of the nobility of the country.

Indians, who, with the exception of their own nobility, were associated with agriculture, became the tribute-paying plebeians. Nevertheless, the Spanish system admitted the existence of an Indian Republic within the colony, which meant that the Spaniards recognised the existence of an internal hierarchy for Indian society.

Because Indians were destined collectively to become "New Christians," they merited the protection of the Spanish Crown. Blacks, on the other hand, were brought to the New World as slaves and were in theory situated at the lowest echelons of society; they worked as domestic servants for the Spaniards and as labourers on the sugar plantations, mines, and estates. Blacks were considered a homogeneous group with no rights and were redeemable only on an individual level, once they had proven their loyalty to the Church and their masters.
Casta Painting
In both cases above, the author is clearly saying that ALL Blacks in the Americas were brought there as Slaves, and that Blacks were the lowest class.

The truth is that the great majority of Blacks in the Americas were indigenous people: Many Black Spanish and Portuguese citizens came to the Americas, and as all these paintings clearly indicate,

Blacks were among the wealthy elite. It is also indisputable that all of "North Americas - Native Americans" are Mulattoes and Whites. It is possible that "SOME" are "ANCIENTLY" derived from European Albino/Mongol and Black stock!

Though it can not be gauged how much mixing occurred between the very first Europeans in the Americas (the Frontiersmen), and the Native Americans. However, resent research indicates that the admixture from frontiersmen was extensive, as new artefacts demonstrate that "Pure" Indians were Blacker than first thought.

Blood quantum laws or Indian blood laws; is legislation enacted in the United States to define membership in Native American tribes or nations. "Blood quantum" refers to describing the degree of ancestry for an individual of a specific racial or ethnic group, for instance: 1/2 by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians (equivalent to one parent), 1/4 by the Hopi Tribe of Arizona (equivalent to one grandparent), 1/8 by the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma (equivalent to one great-grandparent), 1/16 by the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, North Carolina (equivalent to one great-great-grandparent), 1/32 by the Kaw Nation (equivalent to one great-great-great-grandparent).

Its use started in 1705 when Virginia adopted laws that limited colonial civil rights of Native Americans and persons of half or more Native American ancestry. The concept of blood quantum was not widely applied until the Indian Reorganisation Act of 1934. The government used it to establish the individuals who could be recognised as Native American and be eligible for financial and other benefits under treaties that were made or sales of land.

Since that time, however, Native American nations have established their own rules for tribal membership, which vary among them. In some cases, individuals may qualify as tribal members, but not as American Indian for the purposes of certain federal benefits, which are still related to blood quantum. In the early 21st century some tribes have tightened their membership rules and excluded people who had previously been considered members, such as in the case of the Cherokee Freedmen.

Tuesday, 18 October 2016

America, Native Americans, Choris, Muskogean

Georgia Trustee
After retirement in 1742, Vernon became the indispensable man. He missed only 4 of 114 meetings during the last nine years of the Trust and supervised the removal of restrictions on land tenure, rum, and slavery. Egmont, the first president of the Common Council and the dominant figure among the Trustees until his retirement, acted as Georgia's champion in Parliament. He strongly opposed Walpole's attempts to conciliate Spain at the expense of Georgia.He had to walk a careful line, however, because the Trustees depended upon Walpole for their annual subsidies. Other Trustees contributed according to their abilities.

Henry L'Apostre advised on finances, Samuel Smith on religion, and Thomas Tower on legal matters, particularly on instructions to Georgia officials. Stephen Hales's closeness to the royal family and his standing as a scientist lent prestige to the body of Trustees. Shaftesbury, a political opponent of Walpole, joined the Common Council in 1733 and, except for a brief resignation, remained faithful to the end. He led the negotiations to convert Georgia to a royal colony. For the entire twenty years the Trustees employed only two staff members, Benjamin Martyn as secretary and Harman Verelst as accountant.

Louis Choris (1795-1828) was a famous German-Russian painter and explorer. He was one of the first sketch artists for expedition research. Louis Choris, who was a Russian of German stock, was born in Yekaterinoslav, now Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine on March 22, 1795.  He visited the Pacific and the west coast of North America in 1816 on board the Ruric, being attached in the capacity of artist to the Romanzoff expedition under the command of Lieutenant Otto von Kotzebue, sent out for the purpose of exploring a northwest passage.

Choris is said to have "painted nature as he found it. The essence of his art is truth; a fresh, vigorous view of life, and an originality in portrayal." The accompanying illustrations may therefore be looked upon as faithfully representing the subjects treated by the artist. After the voyage of the Ruric, Choris went to Paris where he issued a portfolio of his drawings in lithographic reproduction and studied in the ateliers of Gerard and Regnault. Choris worked extensively in pastels. He documented the Ohlone people in the missions of San Francisco, California in 1816.

Examiner: British researchers probe mystery of lost Native American artifact. It is the Rosetta Stone of North America. The English translation of this hand-painted vellum containing a lost Native American writing system, requires eight printed pages.

With the encouragement of His Royal Highness, Charles, Prince of Wales, a search has begun on both sides of the Atlantic to find the original artifact, or at least a copy of the writing system. It has been misplaced for over 230 years. The year is 1733. Growing increasingly fearful of a combined Spanish, French and Indian attack on its vulnerable white population, the Province of South Carolina agreed to renounce claims on territory southwest of the Savannah River so that a new colony of yeoman farmers could be established on its frontier.

Roughly sixty percent of South Carolina’s population was either African or Native American slaves. These suppressed peoples would be highly inclined to assist the French and Spanish. In 1715, without the direct assistance of European powers, the Yamasee Indians had almost succeeded in wiping the southern part Carolina off the face of the earth. Back then there was no North or South Carolina. A new alliance of tribes in the Carolina Mountains switched sides and attacked the Yamasee just at the moment when Charleston faced annihilation. This alliance was now called the Cherokees. The new colony, called Georgia in honor of King George I, would have no slaves.

Its first town, Savannah, had been designed in advance as a military bastion. Its unique plan maximized the defensive effectiveness of artillery. All males in the colony agreed to be members of the militia in return for being given free land. The colony’s Board of Trustees planned to recruit the thousands of Englishmen in debtor’s prisons, plus German Protestants, being persecuted in Catholic regions, to settle the countryside. Unlike Maryland, Virginia, South and North Carolina, there would be no plantation aristocracy. At least, that was the plan.

The key to this colony’s success would be good relations with the Muskogean peoples of the interior.
Prior to the Yamasee War, they had been divided up into provinces of various sizes. The strongest province was itself an alliance known to the British as the Ochese Creek Indians. At about the same time in 1718 that the Mountain Alliance was given the name Cherokees, the Muskogeans formed their own regional confederacy from provinces speaking several languages and dialects. The Muskogean Confederacy was not a tribe at this time, but would eventually evolve into the Creek Indians.

Nevertheless, in 1733, this alliance contained the largest and most culturally advanced indigenous population in North America. It claimed all the former lands of its members, between the Smoky Mountains in North Carolina southward to St. Augustine, FL. Expansion of the Cherokee Alliance into western North Carolina had forced many Muskogean provinces to relocate to Alabama and Georgia. Its members would not be called “the Creek Indians” until the 1740s.