Thursday, 21 July 2016

Ninth & Tenth Egyptian Dynasty 2160 - 2025 BCE

The Ninth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty IX) is often combined with Dynasties VII, VIII, X and XI (Thebes only) under the group title First Intermediate Period. Dynasties IX and X date approximately from 2160 to 2025 BC.
Akhtoy I (Wakhare Khety I)
Merykare I
Neferkare III
Akhtoy II (Wakhare Khety II)
Akhtoy III (Meryibtowe)
Akhtoy IV (Wahkare)
Akhtoy V (Nebkaure)
Merykare ?
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Dynasty IX was founded at Herakleopolis Magna, and Dynasty X continued there. At this time Egypt was not unified, and there is some overlap between these and other local dynasties. The Turin Canon lists eighteen kings for this royal line, but their names are damaged, unidentifiable, or lost.
This dynasty was also known as the Herakleopolis Dynasty because the rulers controlled lower Egypt from Herakleopolis. This dynasty is also often called the "House of Khety" because many of the ruler's names were Khety, but it is considered to be fairly unstable due to frequent changes in rulers. The Herakleopolitans expelled Asiatic immigrants from the Nile delta and fortified the eastern border of Egypt. This dynasty was responsible for establishing the importance of Memphis.

The Herakleopolitans improved irrigation works, reopened trade with Byblos, and began the "Coffin Texts". One of the kings wrote the "Instruction to Merikara." They also had frequent outbreaks of fighting against the Thebans north of Abydos. Eventually they were conquered by the Thebans and this marked the end of the Herakleopolis Dynasty and the beginning of the Middle Kingdom.

Wakhare Khety I was a pharaoh in the Ninth dynasty of Egypt. His name is mentioned in the Turin King List. Neferkare III, sometimes numbered VII, VIII, or IX, was the third pharaoh of the ninth dynasty of ancient Egypt, ca. 2140 BCE (during the First Intermediary Period), according to the Turin King List, where his name, Neferkare, is inscribed in the register 4.20. Neferkare is not included on the Abydos King List or the Saqqara King List, nor can the existence of his reign be positively confirmed through archaeological finds. This otherwise unattested ruler of Herakleopolis Magna has been controversially identified by various scholars with a king named Ka-nefer-re, who is mentioned in an obscure and isolated tomb inscription of Ankhtifi, nomarch of Hieraconopolis and prince of Moala, about 30 km south of Thebes. Ankhtifi led a coalition of his nome and Edfu against Thebes.

Wankhare Khety II was a local ruler of the Egyptian 9th / 10th Dynasty who governed the 13th nome of Upper Egypt, serving under the Heracleopolitan pharaoh Merykare during the First Intermediate Period (ca. 21st century BC). His unfinished tomb at Asyut has been excavated several times since the late 19th century, most recently in 2003-2006. There is lots of confusion as to how many rulers named Khety (Akhtoy) may have existed in this period; some scholars, relying on the Turin Canon, count as many as seven, but most of these are unknown from other sources. H. R. Hall believed Khety II was the Akhthoes of Manetho's list.

According to Manetho, "He became more terrible than all those who had gone before him that he did evil unto the people in all Egypt and that he finally went mad and was devoured by a crocodile." This fate is similar to other kings whom Manetho felt had ruled cruelly; Menes, who unified Upper and Lower Egypt, was also said to have been devoured by a crocodile. While seen as a local ruler, as there was not real central authority during much of the First Intermediate Period, Khety II (or an earlier king of the same name) appears to have held sway over much of Middle and Upper Egypt, as his name is found in inscriptions north of the First Cataract.

Merikare (also Merykare and Merykara) was a pharaoh in the Ninth or Tenth dynasty of Egypt, during the First Intermediate Period in about 2075 BC. His name is not mentioned in the Turin King List; also his dates are uncertain.

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